This is an article about The Civil War.
Buell, had been commander of the Army of the Cumberland, was succeeded by Rosecrans, engaged Bragg's army in a battle lasting days at Murfreesboro, after which the Confederates retreated. Among the severe losses of the Confederates during the year was the death of Gen. Johnston, who fell at Shiloh, or Pittsburg Landing, on the Tennessee, in April.
The proclamation emancipating the slaves in the rebellious states, which had been decreed by President Lincoln in September, took effect on Jan. 1, 1863. During the year the tide turned in favor of the Federal forces. Hooker succeeded Burnside as commander of the Army of the Potomac, but was defeated in a great battle at Chancellorsville, where the Confederates lost Stonewall Jackson, and undertook the second invasion of Maryland.
Meade succeeded Hooker as commander Army of the Potomac and immediately pursued the Confederates. The armies met at Gettysburg in July and fought desperately for three clays with the result that the Federals gained a complete victory. Lee crossed the Potomac into Virginia and took a stand at the Rapidan ****.
Meanwhile General Grant undertook the capture of Vicksburg, which the Confederates had fortified, and Pemberton was compelled to surrender his army of almost the same time that the victory of Gettysburg was won. Port Hudson fell in July and gave the Federal forces, complete control of the Mississippi, thus dividing the Confederacy into two sections.
However, the Army of the Cumberland under Rosecrans was severely defeated by Bragg in the Battle of Chickamauga, Grant was now made commander of the Department of the Mississippi, which included all the armies of the West, and in November defeated Bragg at Chattanooga, in the battles of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge.
The year closed with the Federals in control of the Misissippi and in possession of the states of Arkansas, Florida, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee.
The ability of Grant in his remarkable campaigns in the West brought about his appointment as commander in chief of all the Union armies. In March, 1864, he took personal command of the armies in the East and placed Sherman in charge of the West and South. Sherman, with an army of 100,000 men, defeated the Confederates at Dalton, Rome, and Resaca, but was himself defeated at Kenesaw Mountain. He occupied Atlanta after it had been evacuated by Hood, who had succeeded Johnston, and two months later began his march to the sea, reaching Savannah on Christmas. Hood had made a counter movement by invading Tennessee, but his army was destroyed by Thomas in the Battle of Nashville.